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Factors associated with occurrence of salmonellosis among children living in Mukuru slum, an urban informal settlement in Kenya

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Show simple item record Mbae, C. en_US Mwangi, M. en_US Gitau, N. en_US Irungu, T. en_US Muendo, F. en_US Wakio, Z. en_US Wambui, R. en_US Kavai, S. en_US Onsare, R. en_US Wairimu, C. en_US Ngetich, R. en_US Njeru, F. en_US Van Puyvelde, S. en_US Clemens, J. en_US Dougan, G. en_US Kariuki, S. en_US 2020-08-25T09:38:00Z 2020-08-25T09:38:00Z 2020 en_US
dc.identifier.issn 1471-2334 en_US
dc.identifier.doi en_US
dc.identifier.other ITG-B13A; DBM; U-DIABAC; JIF; DOI; CPDF; PMC; Abstract; ITMPUB; DSPACE68 en_US
dc.description.abstract BACKGROUND: In Kenya, typhoid fever and invasive non-typhoidal salmonellosis present a huge burden of disease, especially in poor-resource settings where clean water supply and sanitation conditions are inadequate. The epidemiology of both diseases is poorly understood in terms of severity and risk factors. The aim of the study was to determine the disease burden and spatial distribution of salmonellosis, as well as socioeconomic and environmental risk factors for these infections, in a large informal settlement near the city of Nairobi, from 2013 to 2017. METHODS: Initially, a house-to-house baseline census of 150,000 population in Mukuru informal settlement was carried out and relevant socioeconomic, demographic, and healthcare utilization information was collected using structured questionnaires. Salmonella bacteria were cultured from the blood and faeces of children < 16 years of age who reported at three outpatient facilities with fever alone or fever and diarrhea. Tests of association between specific Salmonella serotypes and risk factors were conducted using Pearson Chi-Square (chi(2)) test. RESULTS: A total of 16,236 children were recruited into the study. The prevalence of bloodstream infections by Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS), consisting of Salmonella Typhimurium/ Enteriditis, was 1.3%; Salmonella Typhi was 1.4%, and this was highest among children < 16 years of age. Occurrence of Salmonella Typhimurium/ Enteriditis was not significantly associated with rearing any domestic animals. Rearing chicken was significantly associated with high prevalence of S. Typhi (2.1%; p = 0.011). The proportion of children infected with Salmonella Typhimurium/ Enteriditis was significantly higher in households that used water pots as water storage containers compared to using water directly from the tap (0.6%). Use of pit latrines and open defecation were significant risk factors for S. Typhi infection (1.6%; p = 0.048). The proportion of Salmonella Typhimurium/ Enteriditis among children eating street food 4 or more times per week was higher compared to 1 to 2 times/week on average (1.1%; p = 0.032). CONCLUSION: Typhoidal and NTS are important causes of illness in children in Mukuru informal settlement, especially among children less than 16 years of age. Improving Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) including boiling water, breastfeeding, hand washing practices, and avoiding animal contact in domestic settings could contribute to reducing the risk of transmission of Salmonella disease from contaminated environments. en_US
dc.language English en_US
dc.relation.uri en_US
dc.subject Salmonella Infections en_US
dc.subject Bacterial diseases en_US
dc.subject Children en_US
dc.subject Urban en_US
dc.subject Kenya en_US
dc.subject Africa-East en_US
dc.title Factors associated with occurrence of salmonellosis among children living in Mukuru slum, an urban informal settlement in Kenya en_US
dc.type Article-E en_US
dc.citation.issue 1 en_US
dc.citation.jtitle BMC Infectious Diseases en_US
dc.citation.volume 20 en_US
dc.citation.pages 422 en_US
dc.citation.abbreviation BMC Infect Dis en_US

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