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Searching for lower female genital tract soluble and cellular biomarkers: defining levels and predictors in a cohort of healthy Caucasian women

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dc.contributor.author Kyongo, J. K.
dc.contributor.author Jespers, V.
dc.contributor.author Goovaerts, O.
dc.contributor.author Michiels, J.
dc.contributor.author Menten, J.
dc.contributor.author Fichorova, R. N.
dc.contributor.author Crucitti, T.
dc.contributor.author Vanham, G.
dc.contributor.author Ariën, K. K.
dc.date.accessioned 2012-12-14T16:04:23Z
dc.date.available 2012-12-14T16:04:23Z
dc.date.issued 2012
dc.identifier.issn 1932-6203
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043951
dc.identifier.other ITG-B1B
dc.identifier.other ITG-H2B
dc.identifier.other ITG-B1B
dc.identifier.other ITG-C5A
dc.identifier.other ITG-C7A
dc.identifier.other ITG-B8A
dc.identifier.other ITG-BLA
dc.identifier.other MULTI-3
dc.identifier.other DBM
dc.identifier.other U-VIROL
dc.identifier.other DPH
dc.identifier.other U-HAP
dc.identifier.other DCS
dc.identifier.other U-CTU
dc.identifier.other U-ARLAB
dc.identifier.other JIF
dc.identifier.other DOI
dc.identifier.other FTA
dc.identifier.other E-only
dc.identifier.other Abstract
dc.identifier.other UPD53
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10390/7266
dc.description.abstract BACKGROUND: High concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines have been previously observed in the genital fluids of women enrolled in microbicide trials and may explain observed increased HIV transmission in some of these trials. Although the longitudinal nature of these studies allows within-subject comparisons of post-product levels to baseline levels, the fact that the physiologic variations of these cytokines and other markers of immune activation are not fully defined in different populations, makes it difficult to assess changes that can be directly attributed to microbicide use as opposed to other biological and behavioural factors. METHODS: Cervicovaginal lavage samples were collected from 30 healthy Caucasian and assayed for concentrations of ten cytokines/chemokines, total protein content and two antimicrobial proteins using a multiplex immunoassay and ELISA. Cellular markers were characterized by flow cytometry on mononuclear cells collected from the endocervix using flocked swabs. Bacterial quantification was performed using quantitative PCR. RESULTS: Ectopy, menstrual cycle phase, prostate-specific antigen and presence of leucocytes in endocervical cells' supernatant were associated with the concentrations of cyto-/chemokines in cervicovaginal secretions. Approximately 3% of endocervical cells collected were monocytes of which a median of 52% (SD = 17) expressed both CD4 and CCR5 markers. Approximately 1% of the total cells were T-cells with a median of 61% (SD = 10) CD4 and CCR5 expression. Around 5% of the monocytes and 16% of the T-cells expressed the immune activation marker HLA-DR. Higher percentages of T-cells were associated with greater quantities of IL-1RA, GM-CSF and elafin. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate the presence of selected soluble and cellular immune activation markers and identify their predictors in the female genital tract of healthy women. Future clinical trials should consider ectopy, sexual activity, menstrual cycle phase and presence of bacterial species as possible confounders when evaluating the possible inflammatory effects of microbicide compounds. en
dc.language English en
dc.subject Viral diseases en
dc.subject HIV en
dc.subject AIDS en
dc.subject Drug development en
dc.subject Microbicides en
dc.subject Prevention en
dc.subject Disease transmission, sexual en
dc.subject Women en
dc.subject Genital tract en
dc.subject Cellular en
dc.subject Biomarkers en
dc.subject Cytokines en
dc.subject Chemokines en
dc.subject Proteins en
dc.subject Menstruation en
dc.subject Prostate en
dc.subject Antigens en
dc.subject CD4 en
dc.subject CCR5 en
dc.subject Immune activation en
dc.subject Ethnic groups en
dc.subject Belgium en
dc.subject Europe, West en
dc.title Searching for lower female genital tract soluble and cellular biomarkers: defining levels and predictors in a cohort of healthy Caucasian women en
dc.type Article-E en
dc.citation.issue 8 en
dc.citation.jtitle PLoS ONE en
dc.citation.volume 7 en
dc.citation.pages e43951 en
dc.identifier.pmid http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22952818
dc.citation.jabbreviation PLoS ONE en


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