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Communal farmers' perceptions of tick-borne diseases affecting cattle and investigation of tick control methods practiced in Zimbabwe

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dc.contributor.author Sungirai, M.
dc.contributor.author Moyo, D. Z.
dc.contributor.author De Clercq, P.
dc.contributor.author Madder, M.
dc.date.accessioned 2016-03-11T15:26:40Z
dc.date.available 2016-03-11T15:26:40Z
dc.date.issued 2015
dc.identifier.issn 1877-959X
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2015.07.015
dc.identifier.other ITG-B1B
dc.identifier.other ITG-BLA
dc.identifier.other DBM
dc.identifier.other U-VENTO
dc.identifier.other JIF
dc.identifier.other DOI
dc.identifier.other Abstract
dc.identifier.other UPD60
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10390/8750
dc.description.abstract Tick borne diseases (TBDs) are responsible for huge economic losses in cattle production in most African countries where the majority of cattle owners are the resource poor communal farmers. Governments have initiated and co-ordinate tick control programs with farmers required to contribute funds for their sustenance. The success of these programs will hinge upon the involvement of communal farmers in their design, implementation and evaluation. To this end, 313 communal farmers (approximately 8.4% response rate) were interviewed and 3 focus group discussions were carried out in the southern low-veld part of Zimbabwe with the objectives of investigating communal farmers' perceptions on TBDs affecting cattle, level of participation in government initiated tick control programs, other tick control methods practiced, types of acaricides used and their perceived effectiveness. There was a general awareness of TBDs with 67.7% (n=212) farmers being able to describe tick diseases with names or clinical and post-mortem signs. The diseases or problems frequently associated with ticks were cowdriosis (38%, n=119), mastitis (36.7%, n=115), anaplasmosis (36.1%, n=113), body damage (28.4%, n=89), babesiosis (24.6%, n=77) and poor body condition (16.6%, n=52). Cattle mortalities due to TBDs were reported by 23.8% (n=74) of the farmers. The plunge dip was consistently used by farmers (70.3%, n=220) to control ticks. Other tick control methods practiced were the hand spraying (67.4%, n=211), hand dressing (16.6%, n=52), traditional methods (5.4%, n=17), use of pour-ons (4.5%, n=14) and smearing (2.2%, n=7). The formamidines were the most common class of acaricide used (59.4%, n=186), followed by synthetic pyrethroids (29.1%, n=91), macro cyclic lactones (12.8%, n=40) and organophosphates (4.5%, n=14). Most farmers (75.2%, n=231) perceived these acaricides to be effective in controlling ticks. The results of focus group discussions showed that a number of factors influenced the success of government initiated tick control programs and these included inconsistent supply of acaricides, unaffordable dipping fees, lack of water, long distance to the dip tank, lack of information on dipping procedures and lack of knowledge on strategies for delaying acaricide resistance. This study demonstrates that while farmers can be a valuable source of information with regards to the epidemiology of tick borne diseases affecting their cattle, there is still need for further training in understanding the TBDs and strategies for their control. en_US
dc.language English en_US
dc.subject Animal diseases en_US
dc.subject Tick-borne diseases en_US
dc.subject Cowdriosis en_US
dc.subject Cowdria ruminantium en_US
dc.subject Anaplasmosis en_US
dc.subject Anaplasma en_US
dc.subject Babesiosis en_US
dc.subject Babesia en_US
dc.subject Theileriasis en_US
dc.subject Theileria en_US
dc.subject Vectors en_US
dc.subject Ticks en_US
dc.subject Cattle en_US
dc.subject Epidemiology en_US
dc.subject Mortality en_US
dc.subject Farmers en_US
dc.subject Perceptions en_US
dc.subject Control strategies en_US
dc.subject Acaricides en_US
dc.subject Dipping en_US
dc.subject Zimbabwe en_US
dc.subject Africa, Southern en_US
dc.title Communal farmers' perceptions of tick-borne diseases affecting cattle and investigation of tick control methods practiced in Zimbabwe en_US
dc.type Article en_US
dc.citation.issue 1 en_US
dc.citation.jtitle Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases en_US
dc.citation.volume 7 en_US
dc.citation.pages 1-9 en_US
dc.identifier.pmid http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26234572
dc.citation.jabbreviation Ticks Tick Borne Dis en_US


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