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Population genetics of Plasmodium vivax in the Peruvian Amazon

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dc.contributor.author Delgado-Ratto, C.
dc.contributor.author Gamboa, D.
dc.contributor.author Soto-Calle, V. E.
dc.contributor.author Van den Eede, P.
dc.contributor.author Torres, E.
dc.contributor.author Sanchez-Martinez, L.
dc.contributor.author Contreras-Mancilla, J.
dc.contributor.author Rosanas-Urgell, A.
dc.contributor.author Rodriguez Ferrucci, H.
dc.contributor.author Llanos-Cuentas, A.
dc.contributor.author Erhart, A.
dc.contributor.author Van geertruyden, J. P.
dc.contributor.author D'Alessandro, U.
dc.date.accessioned 2016-05-18T11:13:10Z
dc.date.available 2016-05-18T11:13:10Z
dc.date.issued 2016
dc.identifier.issn 1935-2727
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004376
dc.identifier.other ITG-B4B
dc.identifier.other ITG-B8B
dc.identifier.other ITG-B11A
dc.identifier.other ITG-HLA
dc.identifier.other MULTI
dc.identifier.other DBM
dc.identifier.other U-MALAR
dc.identifier.other DPH
dc.identifier.other U-ECMAL
dc.identifier.other JIF
dc.identifier.other DOI
dc.identifier.other FTA
dc.identifier.other Abstract
dc.identifier.other UPD61
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10390/8804
dc.description.abstract BACKGROUND: Characterizing the parasite dynamics and population structure provides useful information to understand the dynamic of transmission and to better target control interventions. Despite considerable efforts for its control, vivax malaria remains a major health problem in Peru. In this study, we have explored the population genetics of Plasmodium vivax isolates from Iquitos, the main city in the Peruvian Amazon, and 25 neighbouring peri-urban as well as rural villages along the Iquitos-Nauta Road. METHODOLOGY/ RESULTS: From April to December 2008, 292 P. vivax isolates were collected and successfully genotyped using 14 neutral microsatellites. Analysis of the molecular data revealed a similar proportion of monoclonal and polyclonal infections in urban areas, while in rural areas monoclonal infections were predominant (p = 0.002). Multiplicity of infection was higher in urban (MOI = 1.5-2) compared to rural areas (MOI = 1) (p = 0.003). The level of genetic diversity was similar in all areas (He = 0.66-0.76, p = 0.32) though genetic differentiation between areas was substantial (PHIPT = 0.17, p<0.0001). Principal coordinate analysis showed a marked differentiation between parasites from urban and rural areas. Linkage disequilibrium was detected in all the areas ([Formula: see text] = 0.08-0.49, for all p<0.0001). Gene flow among the areas was stablished through Bayesian analysis of migration models. Recent bottleneck events were detected in 4 areas and a recent parasite expansion in one of the isolated areas. In total, 87 unique haplotypes grouped in 2 or 3 genetic clusters described a sub-structured parasite population. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study shows a sub-structured parasite population with clonal propagation, with most of its components recently affected by bottleneck events. Iquitos city is the main source of parasite spreading for all the peripheral study areas. The routes of transmission and gene flow and the reduction of the parasite population described are important from the public health perspective as well for the formulation of future control policies. en_US
dc.language English en_US
dc.subject Protozoal diseases en_US
dc.subject Malaria en_US
dc.subject Plasmodium vivax en_US
dc.subject Vectors en_US
dc.subject Mosquitoes en_US
dc.subject Anopheles en_US
dc.subject Population genetics en_US
dc.subject Transmission dynamics en_US
dc.subject Genetic diversity en_US
dc.subject Haplotypes en_US
dc.subject Amazona en_US
dc.subject Rural en_US
dc.subject Urban en_US
dc.subject Peru en_US
dc.subject America, Latin en_US
dc.title Population genetics of Plasmodium vivax in the Peruvian Amazon en_US
dc.type Article-E en_US
dc.citation.issue 1 en_US
dc.citation.jtitle PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases en_US
dc.citation.volume 10 en_US
dc.citation.pages e0004376 en_US
dc.identifier.pmid http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26766548
dc.citation.jabbreviation PLoS Negl Trop Dis en_US


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